Labor arbitration refers to arbitration that takes place in the context of collective bargaining contracts or negotiations. Employment arbitration is arbitration that takes place as the result of individual employment contracts, non-union company policies, and/or pre-dispute or post-dispute agreements to arbitrate (concerning statutory rights).   For additional information about the employment arbitration process see Employment Arbitration – A Primer.

Many arbitrators who work as labor arbitrators also do employment arbitration. Arbitration service providers such as the American Arbitration Association maintain separate rosters of arbitrators for labor arbitration and employment arbitration. The admission standards for labor and employment arbitrator rosters are different, and the latter does not require non-affiliation neutrality.